Best answer: Why do resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks occur?

Though insecticides have been shown to cause increases in dispersal and fecundity in pestiferous aphids and mites and shorten the life span of mites (Hurej & Dutcher, 1994a; Gerson & Cohen, 1989), the destruction of natural enemies associated with the pest populations is most often assumed to be the cause of pest …

What causes pest resurgence?

Pest resurgence is observed when pests previously targeted and successfully controlled by pesticide recur, but in higher numbers than they did before. The reason for this is the removal of predators together with pests. They either die from the pesticide, or move away because their food source has disappeared.

What is a secondary pest outbreak?

Secondary pest outbreaks occur when the use of a pesticide to reduce densities of an unwanted target pest species triggers subsequent outbreaks of other pest species.

What is pest replacement?

Replacement, or secondary pest outbreak, is resurgence of non-target pests. It occurs when pesticide is used to control the target pest, but afterwards a formerly insignificant pest replaces the target pest as an economic problem.

How does resurgence happen after spraying for insect pest?

Insect and mite pest resurgence occurs when an insecticide or acaricide treatment destroys the pest population and kills, repels, irritates or otherwise deters the natural enemies of the pest. … A dose-response phenomenon called hormesis can occur in pest populations exposed to sublethal doses of pesticides.

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How do you do pest risk analysis?


  1. Stage 1: Initiation. The aim of the initiation stage is to identify the pest(s) and pathways which are of quarantine concern and should be considered for risk analysis in relation to the identified PRA area. …
  2. Stage 2: Pest Risk Assessment. …
  3. Stage 3: Pest Risk Management.

How is insecticide resistance An example of natural selection?

Pesticide resistance is an example of natural selection because the insects who survive the initial use due to a gene that enable them to resist the attack pass on the gene for pesticide resistance to their offspring. … The pesticides become less and less effective every year because organisms adapt to them.

What is economic injury level?

Economic-injury Level (EIL) (Stern et al., 1959) – “The lowest population density of a pest that will cause economic damage; or the amount of pest injury which will justify the cost of control.”

What are two reasonable solutions to slow or deter drug resistance among insects and bacteria?

There are many ways that drug-resistant infections can be prevented: immunization, safe food preparation, handwashing, and using antibiotics as directed and only when necessary. In addition, preventing infections also prevents the spread of resistant bacteria.

How do you manage pesticide resistance?

Managing Pesticide Resistance

  1. Minimize Pesticide Use. Minimizing pesticide use is fundamental to pesticide resistance management. …
  2. Avoid Tank Mixes. Avoid combinations (mixes) of two insecticides or miticides in a single application. …
  3. Avoid Persistent Chemicals. …
  4. Use Long-term Rotations.
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