What are the major body axes of a fruit fly?

The three major body parts of the adult are head, thorax, and abdomen. Figure 22.5 Early development of a Drosophila embryo.

What is the basic segmental pattern of an adult fly?

Synopsis of Drosophila development from egg to adult fly. The fly consists of a head, with mouth, eyes, and antennae, followed by three thoracic segments (numbered T1 to T3), and eight or nine abdominal segments (numbered A1 to A9). Each segment, although different from the others, is built according to a similar plan.

How many segments are there in Drosophila?

The body of Drosophila melanogaster is built from 14 segments: 3 segments make up the head with its antennae and mouth parts. 3 segments make up the thorax. Each thoracic segment has a pair of legs (insects are the six-legged creatures).

What are the body colors in fruit flies?

In fruit flies, two possible body color phenotypes are brown and black. Two alleles for body color are brown and black.

Is caudal a gap gene?

Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad).

What are Homeotic mutations?

A homeotic mutation mixes up body parts, so that a fly grows a leg on its head, antennae on its mouth, or sports a double set of wings.

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What cells does each fly egg have?

Each Drosophila egg arises from a multicellular structure within the ovary called an egg chamber (or follicle). The egg chamber itself consists of an internal cluster of germ cells comprised of 15 nurse cells and one posteriorly localized oocyte, surrounded by an epithelial monolayer of somatic follicle cells (Fig.

What type of diseases can be linked to Hox genes?

HOX genes play a fundamental role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system, axial skeleton, limbs, gut, urogenital tract and external genitalia, but it is only in the last 4 years that mutations in two of the 39 human HOX genes have been shown to cause congenital malformations; HOXD13, which is …

Are gap genes Morphogens?

The transition from an embryo characterized by gradients of morphogens to an embryo with distinct units is accomplished by the products of the gap genes. The gap genes are activated or repressed by the maternal effect genes, and they divide the embryo into broad regions, each containing several parasegment primordia.

What are Denticle belts?

Denticles are hook-like structures produced by ventral epidermal cells during late embryogenesis (Fig. 1A). … Each belt is composed of six rows of cells, where each row produces a denticle of specific size, shape and polarity (Fig. 1B,C).

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